Acute Retinal Necrosis
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) can lead to uveitis, retinal detachment, and blindness. Acute retinal necrosis was first described in the Japanese literature in 1971 and termed Kirisawa uveitis. During the past 3 decades, acute retinal necrosis syndrome has been a source of fear, frustration, and fascination for many ophthalmologists. Unfortunately, it can be a visually devastating condition for the patient.
A necrotic retina is shown in the image below.
Acute retinal necrosis may be a result of dormant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus, or varicella-herpes zoster virus (VZV) viral reactivation in the retina. The exact etiology of this reactivation is still elusive; however, an immunogenetic predisposition to the disease is likely.
In Switzerland, acute retinal necrosis accounts for 1.7% of uveitic cases.
No clear racial predilection exists.
This condition appears to have a predilection for males; however, the extent is not clear.
Acute retinal necrosis is a disease of young healthy individuals aged 20-50 years.
A bimodal age distribution possibly exists, peaking at approximately ages 20 and 50 years. This distribution may be related to differences in etiologic agents. When varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus type 1 is involved, the median age is 57 and 47 years, respectively. When herpes simplex virus type 2 is involved, the median age is 20 years.
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Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS Assistant Professor of Surgery (Ophthalmology), New York College of Medicine (NYCOM); Director of Residency Ophthalmology Training, The Institute for Family Health and Mid-Hudson Family Practice Residency Program; Staff Ophthalmologist, Telluride Medical Center
Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, American Intraocular Lens Society, American Medical Association, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Medical Society of the State of New York, New York State Ophthalmological Society, Outpatient Ophthalmic Surgery Society
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
David T Wong, MD, FRCSC Associate Professor of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine; Ophthalmologist-in-Chief, St Michael’s Hospital, Canada
David T Wong, MD, FRCSC is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Canadian Medical Association, Canadian Ophthalmological Society, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Ontario Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Novartis, Alcon, Bayer<br/>Received research grant from: Novartis, Alcon, Bayer, Genetech<br/>Received consulting fee from Alcon for consulting; Received consulting fee from Novartis for consulting; Received consulting fee from Bayer for consulting; Received consulting fee from Allergan for consulting; Received consulting fee from B & L for consulting.
Saad Waheeb, MB, BCh, FRCSC Consulting Staff, Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital
Saad Waheeb, MB, BCh, FRCSC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Canadian Ophthalmological Society, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference
Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.
Steve Charles, MD Founder and CEO of Charles Retina Institute; Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine
Disclosure: Received royalty and consulting fees for: Alcon Laboratories.
C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary; Founder and President, Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation, Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution
C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Rheumatology, American College of Surgeons, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Uveitis Society, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Medical Society, Royal Society of Medicine, Sigma Xi
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Aldeyra Therapeutics (Lexington, MA); Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Inc (Rancho Cucamonga, CA); Eyegate Pharma (Waltham, MA); Novartis (Cambridge, MA); pSivida (Watertown, MA); Xoma (Berkeley, CA)<br/>Received research grant from: Alcon; Aldeyra Therapeutics; Allakos Pharmaceuticals; Allergan; Bausch & Lomb; Clearside Biomedical; Dompé pharmaceutical; Eyegate Pharma; Mallinckrodt pharmaceuticals; Novartis; pSivida; Santen.
Brian A Phillpotts, MD, MD
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Acute Retinal Necrosis
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