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Why Get Out of the City?

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Why Get Out of the City?

No matter what kind of disaster you are facing, you generally don’t want to be stuck in the city when it happens, and you especially do not want to be stuck in the city during the aftermath.

Cities often turn into hives of bedlam whenever things go wrong, and the delicate economic and supply mechanisms that keep them viable centers of human habitation break down.

Without those installations of modernity in place, people become desperate, lose their tempers and often turn on each other quickly.

The solution for most preppers is simply to get away from the city when the getting is good, either long before disaster or immediately prior to it when possible.

Depending on your lifestyle, the resources available to you and your other goals this might be an elective lifestyle choice for a desperate last-ditch option.

No matter which category you fall into, or if you fall somewhere in between, knowing what to do to get out of the city before things turn pear-shaped is an important part of prepping for urban dwellers.

It would not do for you to survive whatever event or natural disaster qualifies as a true SHTF scenario and then fall victim to a swarming, desperate or opportunistic mass of humanity.

In today’s article we will tell you how to bug out from a city before the SHTF.

Simply stated in the immediate aftermath of a major disaster (or any event that results in major societal upheaval) cities are probably one of the last places you want to be. Why? The answer is of course the people.

I’m not necessarily saying that the people are bad, all those cities have more bad people per capita than other places it seems; it is just that there are so daggone many of them. If it sounds obviously redundant, bear with me for a moment.

The problem with having so many people crammed into a comparatively small space, and all stacked on top of each other in such great abundance, is that this places an immense strain on the logistical and supply systems that make modern metropolises viable.

Cities are, quite literally, utterly dependent upon the sensitive, fragile gears of commerce that are installed all throughout our modern life today.

Cities don’t grow and, in most cases, don’t even produce their own food. Everything comes in from somewhere else, even if it is just a little ways off in the surrounding areas.

Since so many major metropolitan areas are situated on coastlines or near other large bodies of water, obtaining drinking water is usually less of a problem… so long as the city can continually filter it and otherwise make it safe to drink.

These systems require people, people that are not likely to keep manning their posts once the balloon goes up and they have their own skins and their own families to worry about.

Sure, it is easy to believe that there are anywhere from 1 million to 50 billion bottles and jugs of water in any given city at any given time, and one need only to open any given pantry or enter any store to grab however much they need at any time, but that is only true while the trucks that deliver it are still coming.

The moment they stop, that supply of water will evaporate in an instant, snapped up by the millions of people seeking for it.

And beyond food, water and other supplies services like basic healthcare, emergency medicine, police presence and even firefighting services are all in a strictly limited supply at any given time in a city.

Many major cities like New York can have police departments with so many personnel that they could literally fill a small city all on their own; a veritable army of police, and a similarly vast number of firefighters.

If things get really bad, however, this counts for nothing, as those police are dwarfed in number by the population that makes up the rest of the city.

If some major conflagration breaks out the valiant firefighters will be similarly too few in number to even begin to hope to contain the blazes in their entirety.

In short, things are only ever really “okay” in a city because things aren’t terrible, and people’s backs are not yet up against the wall.

When any one of these systems starts to break down, even if it is just a prolonged power outage as has been evidenced many times in the 20th century, tragedy is always close behind.

Things are always on the verge in a major city, and it will not take much to send things toppling. Keep in mind the old survival proverb that says any civilization is only three missed meals away from anarchy.

You could say much the same about any facet of modern life, any utility, any commodity.

When should you leave the city? You have three basic choices:

I naturally recommend getting out according to the “Long-Term” plan, but I know full well that this is not an option for everyone.

Additionally, an article on doing everything required to completely revamp your life to support this exodus from the city instead of an emergency bug out as a response to a disaster is the subject for another article.

Instead, we will be focusing on a pre-incident and near- or post-incident bugging out from urban environments.

In the sections below I will break down the differences between these two approaches, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

Note that this is not necessarily an either-or situation; you should have plans for both, since your location and the severity of the incident you are facing might influence your decision. You also might not get a choice in the matter!

This approach is essentially getting out before things get too bad, or when trouble is coming but you can see it a good ways off on the horizon.

The advantage in leaving during this time is that you will usually be dealing with far fewer evacuees and that means less slowdown, less competition for space and resources and much less traffic.

But the disadvantages in leaving too early means that if the situation changes for the better, or the event misses you completely, you have wasted time, money and energy.

Usually a good trade-off in pursuit of safety, but still costly, and false alarms will harden the hearts and minds of your dependents in future instances.

Pros

Cons

It is critical that you have a bug-out location already in mind if you are using the pre-incident bug out method. Also, just as critical is a “red line” that will trigger your plan; some definite marker pertaining to the event in question.

A storm gets too strong or too close, unrest goes on for so many days in a row or becomes consistently violent, etc.

Second-guessing yourself can see you wait too long for a situation to resolve itself or get better, and when that happens you will be trying to flee with the rest of humanity when it is in all probability too late to do so.

This is the standard prepper response to trouble or disaster. Something terrible has happened swiftly, with little or no warning, and has left your town or even the region in shambles and sent people scrambling in every direction. It is chaos.

The idea of remaining in such a situation is untenable, and so you decide to set off for pre-designated fallback locations, your bug out locations, or in a worst-case scenario just away from the carnage.

This is not ideal, obviously, but might be your default choice for dealing with many situations that you cannot predict and cannot see coming.

On the bright side, it will be obvious that implementation of your plan is indeed necessary, but on the other hand you must be more prepared and skilled at dealing with unforeseen problems, curveballs, and a more stressful situation all around.

Pros

Cons

Like the pre-incident bug out method above, having a BOL and hopefully multiple BOL’s pre-selected and pre-mapped is going to be essential for success when evacuating with haste in the midst of a crisis.

Also just as important will be having alternate, contingency and emergency plans for every conceivable obstacle or threat that might arise during movement.

You will not be able to afford being delayed, stuck or otherwise immobilized! As you might expect the pressure will really be turned up during such a scenario.

So we know that we don’t want to stay in a city in order to have the best chances of surviving some society-toppling event. So where are we going?

Of course, when facing desperate times in one location “anywhere else” is often a good enough answer to the question of where we would like to be, but since we have the time right now to start getting our affairs in order and the time to plan, we should give this some careful thought.

Generally speaking preppers fleeing the cities during times of trouble will have two general sets of acceptable destination in mind:

Broadly speaking wherever you have less people you will have generally less trouble, that is to say less predation from your fellow man, even if this comes at a cost of an increased level of self-sufficiency if you want to survive and prosper.

For most preppers this sounds like a good trade indeed. But with that being said you should think long and hard before you move out to a truly remote location, or even a genuinely off-the-grid parcel of land.

Why? There are no two ways around it; humans are social creatures and we do best only when we have a certain amount of backup from our fellow man, be that family, friends or our fellow citizens in a small, tight-knit community or tribe.

For this reason, moving to a small town or a genuinely small city might be the best blend of the two approaches.

Compared to your average city dweller, people living in smaller communities will more readily form meaningful and lasting bonds with their neighbors.

They will have to worry less about serious violent and organized crime. In times of genuine crisis, the kinds of crisis you will be facing in the aftermath of an SHTF event, there will be drastically less people to place a strain on already beleaguered supplies and supply lines.

Rural communities especially are repositories of old-world knowledge that makes them seemingly ideal when it comes to surviving something that will topple or at least reconfigure our society. They know how to grow and raise their food, produce clean water, build, and repair.

Even a small town or larger village should be able to readily produce enough able bodies to serve for the common defense also, an important consideration for those who would otherwise try to do the lone wolf thing in a remote area.

Without someone to watch the wall, patrol the border and sound the alarm when pushing a post as sentry, you will never be able to sleep with anything but one eye open.

In short, I highly advocate you get out of the city, and head for a smaller town before things get nasty.

If you want to make a go of it purely on your own or with what few people you bring with you in a remote, off-grid location you had better have your stuff together, since any major mishap, accident or attack will likely spell total disaster.

No matter which approach you want to take there will be much to do prior to bugging out of the city. Below you will find a list of action items and considerations you should account for before betting the farm on your plan:

Especially if you live in the city proper, route planning is absolutely essential to ensure you can get where you are going.

Ideally, you want at least two routes to each of your bug-out locations, and if you are smart you will include a contingency route that makes your destination reachable by an alternate form of travel.

If you are planning on driving, make sure you have at least one on foot route and vice versa.

There will be plenty to watch out for when fleeing from the city, but one of the most prevalent and the most hazardous will be choke points, both natural and man-made.

Roadblocks, bridges, tunnels, highway and interstate on-ramps and more can become readily clogged with masses of humanity both on foot and in vehicles. The consequences of such an event are always dangerous, not least of which being you become trapped or stuck.

Cities are always host to a higher crime rate than more rural and less populous areas, and organized crime is most often a fixture in the bargain. This means you might be dealing with some bad hombres in metro zones.

Besides the obvious threat of the criminal element using whatever event you are fleeing from as cover for their own deeds, you will have to be cautious of panicky, desperate people who might not be as well prepared as you are wanting what you have; they may be willing to take it by force.

Weapons are a good idea, even if all you have access to is pepper spray.

Assuming there are other people in the city with you that you care about, be they friends, family or just survival group members, it is critical that everyone be furnished with a copy of the plan and the maps with routes and all destinations marked up.

You should also have rendezvous points for any given route marked as well, to increase the chances the group members can get together no matter where they started from.

It is very likely you will find it impossible to zigzag across town collecting people if you are not already all together when the situation kicks off.

Any crisis or disaster that is worth running away from is going to reap a serious toll in human suffering and lives.

It is important that everyone who is part of your group, even if it is just your family members, is aware of the response to seeing people that are in need, hurt or dying during your bug-out.

This is a decision that should not be made lightly, but under the circumstances stopping to help everyone that is in need will result in a heavy cost both in time and in your own crucial survival supplies.

I’m not going to tell you what you should do in these instances, only that you should give it a thought it deserves and talk about it with the people you will be traveling with. There will be no time to waste for discussion or debate at the instance.

You can hardly mention bugging out without talking about every prepper’s most favorite piece of luggage: The bug-out bag!

A thorough discussion of the BOB is an entire article, or series of articles unto itself, and I and other authors on this site and elsewhere have spent a considerable amount of ink expounding on exactly that topic.

But that being said, there are some specific considerations for keeping and maintaining a bug-out bag for use in an urban environment.

First, as alluded to above you might find it extremely difficult to move in any given direction inside a city once things break bad.

If you are at the office, across town on an errand or in any similar circumstances you might find it impossible to return home and gather your things you need for the journey.

You just might not have that time to spare! Because of this, it makes a lot of sense to keep your bug-out bag with you if you drive your own vehicle around town, or at the bare minimum keep a minimalist kit, or go-bag, with you constantly.

This kit should cover your most essential life-support supplies in case of an SHTF situation and include the following at a minimum:

Keep in mind you might need these items just to get to your primary BOB or some other supply cache. In a really dire situation it might be all you have!

Whatever your other plans might be, you definitely do not want to be caught in a city when the SHTF. Cities have a way of turning into centers of mayhem and depredation which then radiates outward.

Your best bet is to get out while the getting is good, either well before trouble strikes or as quickly as humanly possible once it does.

Use the tips and procedures in this article to refine your own plan and practice it until you cannot get it wrong!

Then you’re gonna love my free PDF, 20 common survival items, 20 uncommon survival uses for each. That’s 400 total uses for these innocent little items!

Just enter your primary e-mail below to get your link. This will also subscribe you to my newsletter so you stay up-to-date with everything: new articles, ebooks, products and more!

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That’s 400 total uses for these innocent little items!

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Why Get Out of the City?

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The Community Emergency Plan

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The Community Emergency Plan

According to survival psychologist John Leach, some 80% of disaster victims freeze up in emergencies, taking no action at all.

Having a plan makes you three times more likely to overcome paralysis in a disaster. This article is about emergency planning at the community level.

We human beings are social creatures endowed with instincts to survive in groups. Once I got my household squared away, I wanted to be able to help others in my community. This leads me to volunteer with a local CERT (Community Emergency Response Team), which put me in touch with emergency managers of my city, county, and state.

When I moved to another part of Cache Valley, I found that my new community didn’t have a CERT and was in sore need of an emergency plan. Be cautious about what you ask for because I was tasked with helping create both in short order.

The various types of community emergency plans all share certain elements. They start at the grassroots level in each household. The better-prepared residents are, the less workload is placed emergency responders. When residents are totally unprepared, emergency responders are faced with an impossible workload.

When the community has a disaster such as an earthquake, the volunteer emergency responder or resident must put themselves and their own house in order before they can effectively assist in the rescue of others.

Click here to get your guide to a layered survival defense!

Now that his or her own home is ordered, our emergency responder can quickly make ready out of a turnout bag to ensure that they don’t forget anything because of the stress and adrenaline rush of the disaster, if they haven’t already done so. Once prepared, they can then help nearby neighbors.

For the purposes of a community emergency plan, a block is a pre-defined area within a neighborhood so that the greatest good can be done with the limited resources on hand at the outset of the incident.

Reporting begins at the individual level and advances to the household, the block, the neighborhood, the area, and then the city. The city reports to the county, the county to the state, the state to the region, and the region report to the federal government.

At the block level, a Block Captain and Backup Block Captain (or Co-Captains) are responsible for walking the block to note which homes are flagged red and green and check on the welfare of homes that are not yet flagged. The block Captains then communicate this information to the Neighborhood ICP (Incident Command Post).

A neighborhood ICP should typically be established upwind and uphill from the incident. Where possible, select a site with intact infrastructure. Reporting from the Block Captains to the ICP can be done on foot, using runners, in geographically small neighborhoods, but the process is much more efficiently handled by establishing a band plan (a band plan allocates specific radio frequencies to each area) beforehand, equipping Block Captains with radios and training them in their use.

Affected neighborhoods organize according to a structure laid out by the federal government after 911 called the ICS (Incident Command Structure.) An Incident Commander directs recovery efforts, dispatching Fire Suppression, Light Search & Rescue, and Extrication Teams.

Light Search & Rescue Teams triage victims according to the severity of their injuries and quickly treating the three killers (airway, severe bleeding & shock.) These teams do not perform CPR because it limits at least two first responders to treating only one patient, potentially costing more lives.

Extrication teams transport victims to treatment areas a CCP (Casualty Collection Point) where victims are triaged a second time and receive treatment until they are transported or released. Each neighborhood needs an ICP and CCP because patients can only be carried so far on stretchers.

Treatment areas are established according to the severity of wounds and a temporary morgue is established for the deceased. This is located out of sight to be respectful of the human remains and to prevent additional psychological trauma that would occur if it were located next to the treatment areas. The red treatment area should be located closest to the transport area where victims are picked up for transport to medical facilities.

Once the immediate needs have been met in their own neighborhoods, teams of volunteer rescue workers can then be assembled and deployed to areas that are still in need. When a neighborhood or city is hard hit to point that infrastructure and road systems are disrupted, rescuers have to brought in from areas that were not affected, leading to delays of days or weeks, so it important that every household stocks enough emergency supplies to support themselves until that happens.

The ICPs in the various neighborhoods report the numbers of red, yellow, green, and black victims and the city allocates resources based on these numbers. Therefore, by working to see that your neighborhood is better organized than the surrounding neighborhoods, you virtually ensure that it will be first in line for the limited resources that your city has to allocate (and it’s not that hard if the other neighborhoods in your city aren’t prepared at all, which is often the case.)

After reporting casualties, property damage and endangered livestock or pets are reported. The city complies these reports and passes them, along with requests for resources, on up the chain to the county.

From the point of view of the taxpaying residents of a city and the municipality itself, it is important that volunteers report to Staging Areas (trained & credentialed personnel) or Volunteer Reception Centers (for Spontaneous Volunteer Management since they must be trained, equipped and tracked) and signed in and out for safety and because the aid a city receives depends on the number of volunteer hours worked and materials used. Without trained volunteers, communities do their best to clean up after a disaster and then FEMA shows up and says, “What disaster?” Who helped and for how many hours in this alleged disaster? We need names and phone numbers.”

Volunteering effectively requires more that a desire to help others. You may have heard stories of people trying to volunteer, only to be turned away, either by a government agency, the Red Cross or some other entity. Someone buys a bunch of cheeseburgers and takes them to a shelter to hand out and they are turned away. Or a radio station raises a bunch of money and holds a drive send needed money and a tractor trailer full of supplies to a disaster area only to get stopped at the state line or at the disaster perimeter, and there the truck sit, sometimes for months. It happens all the time.

Why does this happen and how can it be prevented? It happens because resources are limited and supplies not requested through official channels can take limited resources away from more pressing matters to deal with them. For example, during an emergency where people had been immersed in cold water, some well-meaning volunteers collected a truck load of blankets (because they thought there were a lot of cold people and blankets would surely help) and dropped them off at the fire station. As the incident progress, another engine was deployed only open the door to the bay the fir engine was in to find the path blocked by a truckload of blankets. In another incident, essentially the same thing happened with a truckload of loose energy bars. Despite the big hearts and good intentions, first responders may not have time to move blankets or shovel energy bars.

When an incident occurs, a perimeter is established because emergency personnel need to know how many first responders and victims are in the disaster area. They also need to keep looters and others seeking to take advantage of the situation outside the perimeter. Sometimes busloads of unvetted, uncredentialed and untrained volunteers show up in tank tops and flip flops. To the incident commander, this is huge liability. They’re obviously ill-equipped and untrained and if he turns them loose in his incident perimeter, he’ll almost certainly have more victims to deal with, which will take more of his precious first responders away from the lifesaving efforts in progress.

Because of these factors, highway patrol and responders managing the perimeter are typically ordered to turn back vehicles of supplies or volunteers that have not be requested through official channels. So how can you volunteer without getting sent away? The solution is volunteer through a volunteer organization that is recognized by the government. You will receive training, PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and gear or given a list of what to buy. You will be vetted and issued an ID or ID number. Like other first responders, volunteers don’t “self-activate.” We report to staging areas when our team or unit has been activated. You can still help your family and neighbors. You just won’t do it in uniform.

There are many organizations to choose from, so you are sure to find a good fit. But unless you go through established channels, you will be a “spontaneous volunteer” and may be turned away if responders lack the resources to manage you, but spontaneous volunteers are often welcomed and even requested. When they are, a Volunteer Reception Center is setup where spontaneous volunteers can be trained, equipped, and managed.

Because saving lives is the first priority, informing the public and performing welfare checks (is my loved one OK?) take a backseat until resources are available to set up a joint information center to take on tasks such as family reunification and assistance, but there are some things you can do to make sure you will be informed.

Getting involved in community emergency planning and response pays big dividends for survivalists. I volunteered out of a desire to serve others, but doing so unexpectedly paid me back many times over. If you volunteer with an organization like CERT, ARES, the Medical Reserve Corps (despite the name, you don’t need to be a healthcare professional to join), a sheriff’s posse or a search & rescue team, you will be among the first people notified of emergencies and new threats. You may obtain training and identification that can help you get past incident perimeters without having to sneak through neighborhoods or back roads risking arrest. I have received tons of valuable training that has greatly improved my disaster readiness and educated me about known threats to my area. It also often offers opportunities to build relationships of trust and network with key emergency managers in your community, county, and sometimes even at the state level and beyond. Volunteering has a lot to offer and does not typically obligate you to respond in the event of an emergency.

Cache Valley Prepper is the CEO of Survival Sensei, LLC, a freelance author, writer, survival instructor, consultant and the director of the Survival Brain Trust. A descendant of pioneers, Cache was raised in the tradition of self-reliance and grew up working archaeological digs in the desert Southwest, hiking the Swiss Alps and Scottish highlands and building the Boy Scout Program in Portugal. Cache was mentored in survival by a Delta Force Lt Col and a physician in the US Nuclear Program and in business by Stephen R. Covey. You can catch up with Cache teaching EMP survival at survival expos, teaching SERE to ex-pats and vagabonds in South America or getting in some dirt time with the primitive skills crowd in a wilderness near you. His Facebook page is here. Cache Valley Prepper is a pen name used to protect his identity. You can send Cache Valley Prepper a message at editor [at] survivopedia.com

CVP, very good article….well done. Definitely worth saving. You opened my eyes to a few important things to consider before TEOTWAWKI….thanks!

The Community Emergency Plan

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How to Grow Portobello Mushrooms

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How to Grow Portobello Mushrooms

Food enthusiasts, like me, who have a soft spot for mushrooms and have tasted virtually all the popular and edible types, should be able to testify to the fact that portobello mushrooms are delicious. 

They have a rich, meaty, and earthy flavor that you’d love to always have in your sandwiches, soups, and salads.

For me, I love growing my mushrooms indoors. They are an all-important addition to my meals, which is why I need to be able to easily access them without having to go to a store, 1 or 2 miles away from my home.

If you’d like to know how to grow portobello mushrooms, then this article is all you need to get started.

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Mushroom Growing 4 You

Contents

To grow portobello mushrooms indoors and outdoors, you can follow these tips.  We have a more detailed step by step guide below:

Prepare a growing space, i.e., where you’d like to grow your delicious mushrooms. If you’re growing outdoors, make sure they’re safe and protected from farm pests and rodents.

Prepare your growing materials. You’ll need a container filled with manure composts that the mushrooms will depend on for food and energy as they grow.

If you’re growing outdoors, you might want to sterilize all your materials; the container and compost would need to be sterilized.

Cover the manure compost in your growing tray with the spores which you’d have purchased, and prepared for this purpose. 

Mix the spores properly with the compost.

Spray the surface of the compost with water to keep moist.

Cover your growing tray with newspapers or with a cloth to retain the moisture.

Spray the newspaper or cloth regularly for about 2 weeks, until the white buttons of the mushrooms begin to appear.

Once the mushrooms are all out and there are no visible white web-like streaks in the soil, you can then uncover and continue to spray until the mushrooms mature.

Leave for 2 more weeks for the caps to unfurl.

Harvest by picking with your bare hands.

Cook in your meals and serve!

​How can you grow your own mushrooms at home? The following steps will help you from start.. ​#growyourown #gardeningtips #gardening

Portobello, sometimes referred to as portobello, mushrooms were not so popular in the past. However, over the past few years, they have continued to grow in popularity.

This increase might largely be due to the way these delicious adult criminis can successfully retain their heavy nutrients and intense flavor for long, even after they’ve been cooked or stored for a long time.

Portobello mushrooms are also known for their health benefits. They’re said to contain nutritious properties like minerals, vitamins, sterols, and so on, that help boost our immune system, fight inflammation, as well as the development of cancer, in the body.

So, how can you grow your own mushrooms at home? The following steps will help you from start through to the time they’re ready for harvest.

The first step, if you want to be able to grow your mushrooms without the stress of worrying over temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions, is to find your babies a perfect growing area.

Make sure your grow space is spacious enough to accommodate the quantity you’d want to grow. 

Be sure to also confirm that your mushrooms will not be exposed to intense heat or sunlight, as they do not really need the sun for their growth.

The next step is to prepare the planting medium(s) you’d like to use.

One quite important thing to note, when growing larger types of mushrooms like the port​obell​o, is that you’ll need a lot of space. Your planting medium shouldn’t be less than 8 inches deep and 6 inches long.

Whether you decide to build a portable planting medium or purchase one for yourself online, you have to ensure it is going to be comfortable for you and your mushrooms as they grow.

Mushrooms are unlike plants in their biology, they do not process their food on their own like the plants typically do through photosynthesis.

Mushrooms are fungi. They need to directly depend on another source for the nutrients they need to survive, which is why you need mixed, dried manure-based composites, fertilizers, and other growing materials.

These materials will help in starting and growing your mushrooms in the best way possible, right from the beginning until the time they’re completely ready for harvest.

Mushrooms can only grow from spores. So, you’ll also need their spores too. You can easily purchase these online or from gardening stores close to you.

Further Reading

This may sound quite simple. However, it is one simple step you wouldn’t want to miss out on.

After successfully building or purchasing a growing medium, the next step would be to fill with the manure compost. Make sure to fill them in properly.

If you want to ensure your mushrooms grow big and without any health problems, you may also want to sterilize your planting materials.

You can do this by tightly covering the compost for about 2 weeks or more before going ahead to plant the spores.

However, this is not entirely necessary if you’re growing indoors. What sterilization does is to just reduce the risk of contamination in your mushrooms.

After filling the compost in, you’d also want to sprinkle your portobello mushroom spores on the compost material.

Mix the spores, properly, with sufficient compost in the bed you’ve prepared. Instead of mixing, you can also cover lightly with peat moss or some more compost material.

The next thing to do would be to cover the compost with a newspaper or with a cloth to keep your bed moist always.

You’d also have to regularly spray the newspaper or cloth for adequate moisture.

Mushrooms need adequate moisture to grow. So, you might want to keep the humidity in and around your growing bed up by spraying once or twice per day.

After two weeks, the mushrooms should start shooting out.

You can lift the covering to check for the tiny, white sprouts. If they’re there, then it’s time to remove the covering.

However, if you still notice some white streaks in the compost, leave the newspaper or cloth in place. These white, web-like streaks are an indication that your mushrooms are yet to fully take root in the compost.

When you’re entirely sure the mushrooms are rooted properly, you can then remove the covering you used.

Continue to spray the compost until your mushrooms are grown. This shouldn’t take long—between 10 to 20 days, all things being equal.

You might still want to wait a bit longer for the mushroom caps to fully unfurl if you want the portobellos. They are usually about 1.6–2.4 inches long.

When your portobellos are out, then they should be ready for harvest. And, ultimately, for your consumption!

You can harvest your portobellos early if you want to. However, you’d only be harvesting criminis and not the portobellos you want exactly.

Here is a good video that shows you how to grow in a 5 gallon bucket:

Portobello mushrooms should not take long, at all, to grow. They should be ready for harvest after about 10–12 days of spawning them.

However, if you harvest them at this stage, you’d only be picking criminis, which are equally delicious, but not as chewy as mature portobellos.

If you want mature portabella mushrooms, you might have to wait a few more weeks (a minimum of two) for them to increase in size. Mushrooms are said to increase to almost double their size in about 24 hours.

So, in all, the cultivation of portobello mushrooms shouldn’t take you more than 6 months. With a mushroom grow kit, it should take you less than that, say 4 weeks.

The duration of cultivation should depend entirely on how big you want them to grow. Once you’re satisfied with the size, and it’s not up to 6 weeks yet, you can go ahead to pick and devour your mushrooms however you want. 

​Portobellos have been described as the easiest species of mushrooms you can grow #growyourown #gardeningtips #gardening

Portobellos have been described as the easiest species of mushrooms you can grow, whether indoors or outdoors, using any preferred growing medium and method.

Portobellos are easiest to grow indoors because you wouldn’t have to worry about extreme changes in weather, pests and other issues mushroom farmers are likely to encounter.

To make growing even a lot easier for you, you can use mushroom growing kits that you can easily purchase online. Mushrooms growing kits are handy, and shouldn’t cost you too much. 

The straight answer is an emphatic, NO. Portobellos are really not expensive to grow.

All you need is a growing medium (which you can easily build by yourself), adequate water supply, manure compost, mushroom spawns, and a few sheets of newspapers or a piece of cloth. 

And, of course, you need a comfortable growing space in your home too.

The growing materials that might cost you are the spores and the growing kits (which come at a price for no stress at all). Other than these, every other thing you’d need should not be beyond your reach.

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Mushroom Growing 4 You

Now that you already know how to grow portobello mushrooms, you can then go ahead to start making your preparations already. 

Growing port​obell​os is quite easy and not at all expensive. You’ll definitely have fun growing these mushrooms, whether you grow indoors or outdoors. 

So, enjoy farming your mushrooms!

Meanwhile, why haven’t you even started already?

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How to Grow Portobello Mushrooms

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Saturday, July 11, 2020

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Saturday, July 11, 2020

daily actions toward becoming better prepared for societal collapse

For ourselves, we stepped up the garden planting and hoping for a bountiful harvest. However, the weather will dictate that. We went to an amish bulk food store this week to top off supplies. They had full shelves when made me happy. Otherwise I have avoided regular food stores. Part of me says get more, and the other part of me says, you have enough. Can you really have enough?

I can never have enough. I know what’s coming, whether it’s kicked off by a virus or something else. Being in the middle of a move is killing me. I want to continue stocking up, but I have no place to put things right now.

We were lucky enough to have a senior shopping hour at the grocery store so we could get what we needed on a weekly basis mostly as some things were out of stock. The fact that I have been preparing for years now ( and hubby was ambivalent about that) saved us a great deal of problems.
Now I add to what we’ve used the first go around. Hubby eats 2 cans of pineapple for lunch a week. So when I shop I buy those 2 cans plus extra to put back. The same with the TP we used I had stocked. I buy an extra package to put back into the stock to get it back up to where it was.
He’s picky ( thank his mother why don’t ya *snark*)about what bread he will eat and what he won’t. I told him straight out if we can’t get the bread you want you’ll be eating biscuits and cornbread (which he doesn’t like to eat. again thank his mother *snark*).
What I need to figure out is how to keep the hubby occupied. This time around I had him move my greenhouse and extend our back deck since his boss told him stay home for a month when this first “lockdown” happened. That kept him busy and a happy camper. The next one if it happens will be harder I think.

Maybe you can get him working on a walipini (pit greenhouse). It would surely keep him out of trouble for a couple of months.

https://thegrownetwork.com/walipini-underground-pit-greenhouse-construction/

Saturday, July 11, 2020

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“Boiling of the frog”

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“Boiling of the frog”

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Survival is constant learning, for me and for you, for everybody, no matter how “tough” you think you are, or resilient or smart. As soon as you start to think you are a master of survival or some kind of expert, you are doing something wrong in your philosophy.

The whole series of events that have been happening around us everywhere lately we can be used for learning and understanding. It can help us to be better prepared.

We are living with a new set of rules – and not the ones from the government. When everything changes, the rules of society change too. If you want to survive, you must adapt to them early.

We all know the story about two frogs. It goes in a way that if a frog is thrown in boiling water it will jump immediately out because otherwise, it will end up dead. The other frog that is in a pot of cold water will sit calmly in it while water is slowly getting warmed to the point of boiling, and that frog will end up dead because the change from cold to boiled water happened gradually, and the frog did not recognize the danger.

We are mostly frogs sitting in warm water, not yet boiling but we might be close to that point.

Let’s recognize the danger.

Humans have a magnificent ability of adapting to the circumstances and events around them. Well, most of us do.

My personal experiences there are very rich, and while it is something that goes very deep into human psychology I will mention the practical side of it.

On a personal and short term level, one example is firing and shelling. During the first days of war folks would jump at each shell or bullet fired wherever, until the point in time where folks realized not every bullet or shell would kill them, and even more, to the point when folks said “f..k it, I cannot jump into a hole and hide every 30 seconds.”

We called it numbness.

Another example would be living in harsh conditions. For example, one day you stop taking a shower every day, and start to take shower once in 15 days or once in a month. Or maybe on some personal level, you accept that people getting killed around you without logic and reason, kids, civilians…”It is the new reality.”

Now, as I said, it is a magnificent ability, otherwise, I would simply have hung myself in that time.

But, there are also dangers to that. In my SHTF time, “numbness” may get you into dangerous situations where you almost would think you are somehow invincible (I am not joking), and you simply stop to care about the basic things, like safety and security, and you end up dead.

If we want to transfer the above philosophy to the recent situations around us, I would say that we all need to stop, and think about whether it is good to become “numb” to those events around us?

If adapting and being “numb” means we are keeping a cool head, with clear plans and goals (while the water slowly getting to the point of boiling) then it is good to be numb.

But, if adapting and being numb means we are accepting the new reality around us with spikes of unemployment, violent protests, and the general feeling of rage among common folks, or despair, pandemics, strong polarization, and what not and we keep saying, “Nah, it is nothing, the world will just keep turning,” then we are in trouble because we are not noticing the water is going to boil and kill us.

Do not be that kind of frog. No, it is not normal, and yes, these situations could very easily erupt or come to a boil, so prepare for that.

Remember, survival is being ahead of others. Survival is jumping out of the pot of water before it boils. Jumping out of the water might be simply realizing that this situation can not go for too long without boiling.

One thing that is very connected with people being in that pot of water that is gradually heating up is the fact that if people do not understand that the water is getting hotter and hotter, is that they will probably fail to implement the “new rules” too. I talk a lot about understanding the new rules in both of my books, The Dark Secrets of SHTF Survival and SHTF Survival Stories. You have to realize that society is now playing by a different set of rules. It’s essential to understand what’s going on and to adapt to the new rules early.

I am talking about something that might be explained like implementing your personal scale of “awareness” or you could call it your own DEFCON level.

So, if you are paying close attention to how the situation around you is heating up, you should then be aware that based on that you are changing your DEFCON level, or survival mode if you like.

In reality again, no, this is not normal. You should be constantly aware of how the situation is developing around you. Based on that, you change your behavior or your response to the situation.

A very basic and rudimentary example is that when you live for years in a safe, secure community and you may be used to not locking your doors. Perhaps it is time to start to lock them.

Or if we want to go into more complicated things maybe it is time to think about what kind of information you are giving up about yourself based on what you wear in a certain part of the city. Maybe a cap with a message on it will make you a target now, or similar things.

The situation around us changes, and we need to change too based on that.

Very often that personal change is kind of painful, because we are used on certain liberties and rights, and we are not willing to lose them, even if that means we are putting ourselves in danger.

It is hard to change if that means something is taken from us (liberties, rights, comfort, luxuries, etc) but again, remember that by holding onto it stubbornly, you are actually being that frog sitting in water that is going to boil, and you are failing to recognize that it is heating up.

Nobody said survival is going to be easy. By fooling yourself into false feelings of safety or liberty, you are not doing a favor to yourself.

Selco survived the Balkan war of the 90s in a city under siege, without electricity, running water, or food distribution. 

In his online works, he gives an inside view of the reality of survival under the harshest conditions. He reviews what works and what doesn’t, tells you the hard lessons he learned, and shares how he prepares today. He never stopped learning about survival and preparedness since the war. Regardless of what happens, chances are you will never experience extreme situations as Selco did. But you have the chance to learn from him and how he faced death for months.

Real survival is not romantic or idealistic. It is brutal, hard and unfair. Let Selco take you into that world.

Selco survived the Balkan war of the 90s in a city under siege, without electricity, running water, or food distribution.

In his online works, he gives an inside view of the reality of survival under the harshest conditions. He reviews what works and what doesn’t, tells you the hard lessons he learned, and shares how he prepares today.

He never stopped learning about survival and preparedness since the war. Regardless what happens, chances are you will never experience extreme situations as Selco did. But you have the chance to learn from him and how he faced death for months.

Read more of Selco’s articles here.
Buy his PDF books here.
Take advantage of a deep and profound insight into his knowledge by signing up for his unrivaled online course.

Real survival is not romantic or idealistic. It is brutal, hard and unfair. Let Selco take you into that world.

LIVE Webinar with SELCO: Survival Communities (Tomorrow)

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In the event of a long-term disaster, there are non-food essentials that can be vital to your survival and well-being. Make certain you have these 50 non-food stockpile essentials. Sign up for your FREE report and get prepared.

“Boiling of the frog”

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Lessons in Project Management From the COVID-19 Disruption

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Lessons in Project Management From the COVID-19 Disruption

COVID-19 has been one of the most disruptive events mankind has faced in generations. Not once in the last 100 years have governments had to seal borders or ask companies to shut down non-essential services. For project management practitioners, “safety first” has taken a new direction, a big change from delivery “on time and on budget”.

Many projects are being put on hold, not because they were not needed or because there was no funding available, but because of uncertainty and market volatility. Worldwide, governments are collaborating at an unprecedented scale and for a while political differences and old rivalry are forgotten.

At a smaller scale, organisations, teams, and individuals are adapting to the crisis and the savvy ones are learning from the impacts of actions taken at a larger scale.

As industries adapt to the new normal, what should organisations be asking themselves to ensure that they can embrace a new and more effective way of delivering projects over the long term? How can project management professionals adapt to the post COVID world and maintain or even increase their employability?

In this ebook, we present an analysis by Dan S. Roman, an outcome-driven Senior Project Manager and Scrum Master with over four decades of project management experience. Dan is a pioneer of Agile delivery, using light documentation, incremental and iterative development since 1990 and formal Agile Frameworks (XP, Scrum) since early 2000.

A champion of combining best practices to achieve results, Dan reflects on possible changes that the project management profession may see in the future due to the disruption brought about by COVID-19.

Dan makes his projections on four key aspects in the delivery of projects and programs in response to the COVID-19 crisis are examined, namely: project delivery disciplines, the role of project leadership, management of project phases and the need for increased focus on upskilling.

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TriStar 35416

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TriStar 35416

We are a firearms, ammunition, tactical, and preparedness goods retailer/manufacturer located in the heart of the southwest. Where the outlaw spirit still runs deep. We are pro God given rights and extreme gun rights advocates.

Mfg Item #: 35416

TriStar Arms is proud to introduce its line of dedicated trap guns. The TT-15 line offers precision, beauty and performance. The TT-15’s are loaded with features including a raised target rib with 3 adjustment points, adjustable comb, palm swell, fiber optic sight, and color coded extended Beretta/Benelli Mobile chokes. This Double Trap model features a 32″ adjustable vent rib barrel, a walnut stock with an adjustable comb and buttstock, and 5-Multi chokes (F, IC, IM, M, SK).

We are a firearms, ammunition, tactical, and preparedness goods retailer/manufacturer located in the heart of the southwest. Where the outlaw spirit still runs deep. We are pro God given rights and extreme gun rights advocates.

TriStar 35416

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How Velocipede Carousels Work

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How Velocipede Carousels Work

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One of the most beloved rides at any carnival or fair is the carousel, or merry-go-round. A menagerieof animals, often horses, is mounted on a circular platform. As the platform slowly turns around and around, each animal glides up and down a pole. A few of the animals may be stationary, for those who prefer it. The ride is safe, gentle and appeals to young and old alike. The velocipede carousel was slightly different.

Carousels trace their roots back to a game played by Arabian and Turkish horsemen in the 1100s. In the game, which Spanish crusaders brought back to Europe, men would race on horseback, lances in hand, trying to spear a tiny ring hanging from a tree limb. Fast-forward to the 18th century, when a Frenchman decided youth should be trained in ring-spearing. To help them out, he created a device where carved horses and chariots, hanging from chains, were hooked together from a center pole. From this device the modern carousel, or merry-go-round, evolved. A precise date for the first modern carousel isn’t known, but they were relatively common in Europe by the late 18th century [source: International Museum of Carousel Art]. Initially carousels were powered by men or animals, then steam and finally electricity [source: Cohen].

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In the late 19th century, the velocipede carousel debuted. This carousel moved by people-power: Each rider used bicycle-type pedals to collectively move the ride. As people pedaled in unison, the entire set of figures circled the platform. The pedals were set so that you had to pedal together, at the same speed, like riding a tandem bike. If you couldn’t keep up, you could lift your feet up off the pedals and enjoy a ride compliments of your neighbors’ sweat. Because a lot of young kids wouldn’t be able to help pedal, velocipede carousels contained some raised, pedal-less seats.Some velocipede carousels were also built so they could be pedaled backward [source: Cohen].

Unfortunately, velocipede carousels were a short-lived phenomenon likely because people preferred the ease of mechanical power over their own muscle. By the early 20th century, they were largely gone.More interesting than their short longevity may be the impetus behind their creation.

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How Velocipede Carousels Work

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Top 5 Family Camping Tips

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Top 5 Family Camping Tips

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Whether you’re a novice or seasoned camper, taking your family on a trip in the great outdoors is a fantastic way to commune with nature and get to know one another better.

Although the outdoors is full of kid-friendly elements like campfires, little woodland animals and dirt, the unprepared camper can be caught off guard by a few common issues. Fortunately, many uncomfortable situations, issues and screaming fits can be avoided with a little bit of preparation.

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So, before you start packing up the minivan with tents and sleeping bags, take a moment to peruse the following list of handy tips to make your family campout memorable — in a good way!

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The ‘Wild’ Effect? Why Hiking Is Surging in Popularity in the U.S.

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Top 5 Family Camping Tips

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What Would It Take to Reskill Entire Industries?

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What Would It Take to Reskill Entire Industries?

The pandemic has brought about a unique situation: millions unemployed on the one hand and rapidly evolving and growing skills needs on the other. There is an opportunity for the former to solve the latter’s problem. With it, comes an urgency for companies, governments, and workers’ organizations to join forces and offer the global workforce clear reskilling pathways. There are three concrete policies governments and labor organizations can deploy to make it available to all: First, create and empower tripartite sector skills councils (SSCs). These are non-profit organizations focused helping on a single industry sector define and close its skills gaps. Second, support small businesses. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs) often need more financial and technical resources to reskill their employees. Third, make reskilling more accessible to individual employees. All employees should have access to some kind of career development support, funded through a mix of personal contributions, employer support, and state sponsorship.

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As the global health crisis begins to recede in some countries, the economic one is only just beginning. As of May 27, 2020, the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that 94% of the global workforce lives in countries with active workplace closure measures. Businesses across a range of sectors are facing catastrophic losses, resulting in millions of workers vulnerable to layoffs.

Meanwhile, the past few months have also seen a rapid acceleration of three major forces: deglobalization, digitization, and corporate consolidation. With consumer habits shifting rapidly to online consumption, businesses have had to respond quickly with “digital transformation” plans in months instead of years. In line, one popular Internet meme singled out Covid-19 as the member of the C-suite responsible for digital transformation, as opposed to the chief digital or chief executive officer.

This is a unique scenario — millions unemployed on the one hand, and rapidly evolving and growing skills needs on the other. There is an opportunity for the former to solve the latter’s problem. With it, comes an urgency for companies, governments, and workers’ organizations to join forces and offer the global workforce clear reskilling pathways.

Most major organizations recognized the need to reskill employees long before the pandemic. In 2019, the ILO Global Commission on the Future of Work stated, “Today’s skills will not match the jobs of tomorrow, and newly acquired skills may quickly become obsolete.” The commission strongly recommended that governments, employers, and workers invest in education and training. The ILO has since adopted the Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work, calling upon its member states to establish lifelong learning systems as a joint responsibility of governments, and employers’ and workers’ organizations.

Today, we believe this need is no longer just a recommendation, but a necessary step to economic recovery. The good news is that some investments in reskilling are already in the works. In the last year, many of the world’s largest employers have made pledges to help their workforces build new skills. Amazon announced a $700 million fund to reskill 100,000 workers. Orange, the French telecoms giant, announced an investment of €1.5 billion for a similar initiative. And PwC, the global professional services firm, tops those with an investment pledge of $3 billion.

As initiatives like these become increasingly common, human resources leaders, governments, and educators must work together to design a shared toolkit with clear definitions for the pressing parameters of reskilling. The answers to these three questions are critical if such investments are to reach those who need them most:

In the last few years, a number of respected organizations have aimed to better understand what reskilling really means in terms of content, format, and financial investment.

Content. To begin, let’s call out what’s unique about reskilling: “It’s not just about a medium of learning but rather about learning in service of an outcome, which is usually the successful transition into a new job or the ability to successfully take on new tasks,” according to Glenda Quintini, a senior economist at OECD, who recently wrote a paper on the topic. As such, reskilling refers not only to learning job-specific technical skills but also to acquiring core competencies such as adaptability, communication, collaboration, and creativity.

Format. Quintini and her colleagues define three formats in which reskilling can take place:

Choosing the format that’s right for any one employee, employer, or government depends on the desired outcome and situation. For example, in the current economic crisis, speed, accessibility, and a clear pathway to employment are the most pressing factors for many workers, meaning that short informal learning experiences will likely be the most effective. However, in a recovered economy, one may value deep expertise and the prestige of a degree, in which case a formal learning experience would be best.

Financial Investment. Last year, a paper from the World Economic Forum and Boston Consulting Group found that the cost of reskilling is approximately $24,800 per person in the United States. When set against a larger context of the cost of hiring, severance, and onboarding, research by Josh Bersin, a leading expert in the human resources field, that was commissioned by General Assembly and Whiteboard Advisors, found “it can cost as much as six times more to hire from the outside than to build from within.” While this calculation varies significantly based on the occupation and job function, it presents a strong case for employers and governments to consider reskilling costs from a holistic perspective.

This is an investment that should be jointly borne by employees, employers, and governments, as each entity benefits from the return. However, the current breakdown is uneven, at a time when the need for such investment is greatest. Employees have demonstrated their willingness and interest; online courses have reported a massive surge of demand since the pandemic. On the employer side, while some companies are leading the way, Deloitte reports that only 17% of companies have made “meaningful investments” in reskilling initiatives. Particularly as we respond to the long-term effects of the pandemic, more must be done to coordinate and increase these investments.

The well-popularized (and criticized) answer to this question is from psychologist K. Anders Ericsson, who states that it takes 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to achieve expertise. Dan Coyle, author of The Talent Code, alternatively, talks about the value of a conscious, long-term time commitment. Those who make one need significantly less practice to learn a new skill than those who don’t.

We believe that the answer may vary from person to person. But it is safe to say that those who wish to successfully reskill should be ready to commit significant time to the endeavor. As just one example, we can look at General Assembly’s “Immersives,” full-time courses that are designed to help participants gain skills to get jobs in technology, data, and other digital roles. While most participants have a university education, they typically have little to no prior experience in the field they’re hoping to enter. These courses typically take 480 hours of live instruction, either online or in a physical classroom, and are often delivered over an intense 12-week period.

General Assembly has found that this is enough time for students to complete and receive feedback on multiple projects that simulate what it’s really like to have the job for which they’re preparing. It’s also a long enough time for them to form strong bonds with their classmates — bonds that serve as a support system and continued source of learning as they get started in their careers. Between 2018 and 2019, about 90% of graduates from this program secured a job within six months of graduating, suggesting that 480 hours is a good benchmark for building new skills.

As another benchmark, consider the six-month bootcamp run by Laboratoria, a nonprofit located in Latin America. They teach web development, user experience design, and other in-demand technology skills to women. The organization claims to place 80% of their graduates in new roles that generate a threefold increase in their income, on average.

Given what we know about reskilling, its various formats, costs, and how long it can take, we believe there are three concrete policies governments and labor organizations can deploy to make it available to all.

Create and empower tripartite sector skills councils (SSCs). SSCs are non-profit organizations focused on helping a single industry sector define and close its skills gaps. These groups typically collaborate with relevant government bodies to provide representatives from employers’ and workers’ organizations with critical information about newly critical skills. For example, in the technology sector, Tech Partnership Degrees in the United Kingdom is an SSC that brings employers and universities together to “improve the flow of talent into the digital workforce.” Similar groups are in Denmark, the Netherlands, South Africa, Singapore, and Argentina.

Support small businesses. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs) often need more financial and technical resources to reskill their employees. Support from the public sector is vital. In Austria, for example, groups of SMEs are able to apply for funding through the Impulse Qualification Network , a national grant for companies funded by the Federal State and managed by the Austrian Public Employment Service. The grant is meant to help SMEs identify skills needs throughout their organizations, as well as design coordinated training plans.

Make reskilling more accessible to individual employees. All employees should have access to some kind of career development support, funded through a mix of personal contributions, employer investment, and state sponsorship. Some countries are already leading the way. In France, “personal learning accounts,” managed by the Caisse des Dépôts et Consignation and implemented by employment services and social partner organizations at regional level, allow workers, both employed and unemployed, to receive up to 500 per year with a lifetime ceiling of 5,000 euros for reskilling. The program is co-funded by employers, employees, and the state.

Further, in response to the economic crisis, French employers who furlough their employees as part of the Ministry of Labor’s “partial activity” program are able to claim back up to €1,500 (and more in some cases) per employee for funds that are used for training purposes while the person is not working. The idea is to use the period of forced downtime as a way to sharpen and improve skills, thereby contributing to a more robust economic recovery.

Singapore is another country that has long led the way in government-funded pathways for reskilling. “Skills Future Credit” (funded by a mixture of government funds), as well as “Skills Development Levy” and “Skillsfuture Jubilee Fund” (financed through donations from employers and unions) allow all Singaporeans of 25 years of age and older to receive the equivalent of $370 per annum in their personal learning accounts for reskilling. The credit does not expire and individuals can accumulate credits as the government provides periodic top-ups.

In addition, a program offered through Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA), a statutory board of  the Singapore government, helps mid-career Singaporeans with funds and connections to training providers to reskill and find new jobs in the tech sector. Take the story of Arif Rahman, a hairdresser who became a software engineer by completing a course funded partly through IMDA. As quoted in his profile, Rahman says, “If I go to a [traditional university], I have to study for three years before I can start work.” Rahman felt as though he didn’t have that kind of time and was able to benefit from a shorter, more intensive course which led to him successfully landing a job at a startup.

Meanwhile, in Louisville, Kentucky, a coalition of partners including the mayor’s office, Microsoft, the health insurance company Humana, and General Assembly have come together to launch a “30-Day Upskilling Challenge,”offering free courses in areas such as data analytics, software engineering, digital marketing, and more, with a pathway for employment at local companies.

Sustained coordinated ideas and initiatives like these will help us avoid the worst of the growing economic crisis and ensure a more resilient and stable world of work.

If our free content helps you to contend with these challenges, please consider subscribing to HBR. A subscription purchase is the best way to support the creation of these resources.

Anand Chopra-McGowan is VP, Managing Director at General Assembly, a leader in career transformation, and is responsible for the company’s EMEA region.

Srinivas B. Reddy is Chief of Skills and Employability Branch at ILO Geneva. Mr. Reddy’s professional career in industrial relations, skills development and general management has spanned over 30 years.

What Would It Take to Reskill Entire Industries?

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