Home » All Great Easy Ways To Save Tax And Good Deductions » Ankylosaurus: A Tank-like Herbivore With a Killer Club Tail

The Best Sellers



COVID-19 Solutions & Effective Tips

COVID-19
HOW TO DEFEAT DEADLY CORONAVIRUS?

The Greatest Emergency Virus Surviving 10 Steps Guide

Risk Responses COVID-19 Solutions

EFFECTIVE FIRST AID KIT

For Use When Travel FIRST AID KIT

 

Amazon Impress Gifts 50% Off HOLIDAYS&CHRISTMAS Only!

Christmas&Holidays50%OffGifts


RSS Top Internet Today News

THE Best Sellers




Amazon Best Sellers

Arts & Entertainment

 Architecture
 Music
 Photography
 Radio
 Theater
 Art
 Body Art
 Dance
 Fashion
 Film & Television
 General
 Humor
 Magic Tricks

Travel

 Africa
 Asia
 Canada
 Caribbean
 Europe
 General
 Latin America
 Middle East
 Specialty Travel
 United States

Sports

 Individual Sports
 Martial Arts
 Mountaineering
 Other Team Sports
 Outdoors & Nature
 Racket Sports
 Running
 Soccer
 Softball
 Training
 Volleyball
 Water Sports
 Winter Sports
 Golf
 Hockey
 General
 Football
 Automotive
 Baseball
 Basketball
 Coaching
 Cycling
 Extreme Sports

Betting Systems

 Casino Table Games
 Football
 General
 Horse Racing
 Lottery
 Soccer
 Poker

Spirituality, New Age & Alternative Beliefs

 General
 Astrology
 Hypnosis
 Magic
 Numerology
 Paranormal
 Psychics
 Religion
 Tarot
 Witchcraft

Business / Investing

 Derivatives
 Economics
 Equities & Stocks
 Foreign Exchange
 General
 International Business
 Management & Leadership
 Marketing & Sales
 Outsourcing
 Personal Finance
 Real Estate
 Small Biz / Entrepreneurship
 Commodities
 Debt
 Careers, Industries & Professions

As Seen On TV

 General
 Backyard Living
 Auto
 Health and Beauty
 Kitchen Tools and Gadgets

E-business & E-marketing

 SEM & SEO
 Consulting
 Copywriting
 Domains
 E-commerce Operations
 E-zine Strategies
 Email Marketing
 General
 Market Research
 Marketing
 Niche Marketing
 Paid Surveys
 Pay Per Click Advertising
 Promotion
 Social Media Marketing
 Blog Marketing
 Submitters
 Video Marketing
 Classified Advertising
 Banners
 Auctions
 Affiliate Marketing
 Article Marketing

Employment & Jobs

 Cover Letter & Resume Guides
 General
 Job Listings
 Job Search Guides
 Job Skills / Training

Fiction

 General

Games

 Console Guides & Repairs
 General
 Strategy Guides

Green Products

 Alternative Energy
 Conservation & Efficiency
 General

Computers / Internet

 System Analysis & Design
 Databases
 Email Services
 General
 Graphics
 Hardware
 Networking
 Operating Systems
 Programming
 Software
 System Administration
 Web Hosting
 Web Site Design

Cooking, Food & Wine

 Baking
 BBQ
 Cooking
 Drinks & Beverages
 General
 Recipes
 Regional & Intl.
 Special Diet
 Special Occasions
 Vegetables / Vegetarian
 Wine Making

Languages

 English
 Arabic
 Chinese
 French
 German
 Hebrew
 Hindi
 Italian
 Japanese
 Other
 Russian
 Sign Language
 Spanish
 Thai

Education

 Test Prep & Study Guides
 K-12
 Student Loans
 Higher Education
 Educational Materials
 Admissions

Home & Garden

 Animal Care & Pets
 Crafts & Hobbies
 Entertaining
 Gardening & Horticulture
 General
 Homebuying
 How-to & Home Improvements
 Interior Design
 Sewing
 Weddings

Mobile

 Apps
 Developer Tools
 General
 Security
 Ringtones
 Video

Health & Fitness

 Women's Health
 Spiritual Health
 Strength Training
 Yoga
 Dietary Supplements
 Addiction
 Beauty
 Dental Health
 Diets & Weight Loss
 Exercise & Fitness
 General
 Meditation
 Men's Health
 Mental Health
 Nutrition
 Remedies
 Sleep and Dreams

Software & Services

 3D Printing
 Internet Tools
 Anti Adware / Spyware
 Background Investigations
 Communications
 Dating
 Developer Tools
 Digital Photos
 Drivers
 Education
 Email
 Foreign Exchange Investing
 General
 Graphic Design
 Hosting
 MP3 & Audio
 Networking
 Operating Systems
 Other Investment Software
 Personal Finance
 Productivity
 Registry Cleaners
 Reverse Phone Lookup
 Screensavers & Wallpaper
 Security
 System Optimization
 Utilities
 Video
 Web Design

Self-Help

 Time Management
 Survival
 Success
 Stress Management
 Abuse
 Dating Guides
 Eating Disorders
 General
 Male Dating Guides
 Marriage & Relationships
 Motivational / Transformational
 Personal Finance
 Public Speaking
 Self Defense
 Self-Esteem

Parenting & Families

 Divorce
 Education
 Genealogy
 General
 Marriage
 Parenting
 Pregnancy & Childbirth
 Special Needs

Reference

 Gay / Lesbian
 Automotive
 Catalogs & Directories
 Consumer Guides
 Education
 Etiquette
 General
 Law & Legal Issues
 The Sciences
 Writing

Politics / Current Events

 General

Ankylosaurus: A Tank-like Herbivore With a Killer Club Tail

Ankylosaurus: A Tank-like Herbivore With a Killer Club Tail

Advertisement

Advertisement

It’s hard to read anything about dinosaurs without bringing along preconceived notions of what the creatures might have looked or acted like. Most people either read books as children or watched television or movies that depicted dinosaurs as massive, monstrous creatures, seeking to destroy or devour anything in their path. Some of those animals, like Tyrannosaurus, were huge predators. But not all dinosaurs fit that bill. Enter the Ankylosaur.

While this four-legged dino was certainly big – the largest Ankylosaurus ever found was 20.5 feet (6.25 meters) long and weighed around 4 tons (3.6 metric tons) – Ankylosaurus was an herbivore, a plant-eating tank of an animal. And we do mean tank. The Ankylosaurus was covered with thick, bony plates – a defense that came in handy for this hefty herbivore and lent it its name. Ankylosaurus means “fused lizard” in Greek – the bony plates were fused to the dinosaur’s skull and other body parts making it extremely sturdy.

Dr. Hans Sues is the senior research geologist and curator of fossil vertebrates in the department of paleobiology at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., and has published widely on many species of dinosaurs, including a 2020 article on the skull of one species from the ankylosaur group in the journal Biological Communications.

“The first line of defense was their outer armor composed of bony plates,” Sues says via email. “In fact, ankylosaurs were so heavily armored that even their upper eyelid was protected by a bony plate. One group of ankylosaurs, Ankylosauridae, had massive clubs of bone at the end of their tails, and they could swing their tails to inflict massive damage on the legs of an attacking predator.”

The Ankylosaurus’ body was thick and squat, its legs sturdy. It had a broad, triangular shaped skull. But it was the armor that made the difference – hard plates covered with bony spikes jutting from its flanks and bony knobs called osteoderms or scutes protruding from its back. Horned protuberances stood out above each eye and on the sides of the face. Not all ankylosaurs had the same armor patterning but all had armor to protect them from predators, most notably Tyrannosaurus, Tarbosaurus and Deinonychus.

And ankylosaurs needed that protection because they spent most of the day eating massive amounts of food – stripping leaves from low-lying plants.

“They have small teeth similar to those of present-day plant-eating lizards,” Sues says. “An amazing discovery of a nearly perfect ankylosaur skeleton from Alberta [British Columbia, Canada] preserved gut contents that confirmed that ankylosaurs ate plants.” However, Sues shared a startling discovery. “One small-bodied ankylosaur recently discovered in northern China apparently went into lakes and even ate small fish,” he says.

Though the first ankylosaur fossil was discovered by Barnum Brown in the Hell Creek Formation in Montana in 1906, Sues says ankylosaurs have been found in many places throughout the world including Europe, Antarctica, Asia, Australia and North and South America.

“In fact, one of the first dinosaurs ever to be discovered was an ankylosaur, Hylaeosaurus from southern England, discovered in 1831,” he says.

Ankylosaurs had a complex nasal system which included a large cavity volume for the region of the brain that handles the olfactory sense (sense of smell). A 2011 study in the Journal of Anatomy suggested that ankylosaurs may have had a highly developed sense of smell in order to find food and to avoid predators.

We do not know whether or not ankylosaurs were social as adults, whether they moved in herds. According to Sues there’s simply no evidence one way or the other, though he said that a group of very young ankylosaurs were discovered in the Gobi Desert.

And though Ankylosaurus armor and body type might bring to mind thoughts of alligators and crocodiles, Sues says they are not related. “The closing living relatives of dinosaurs are birds,” he adds.

Interestingly, Ankylosaurus was estimated to have lived between 65.5 million to 66.8 million years ago in North America during the Late Cretaceous period which means ankylosaurs were among the last dinosaurs roaming the earth. According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dinosaurs went extinct about 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period. In addition to fossil sites in Montana, Ankylosaurus tracks have been found in the western U.S. in Arches National Park in Utah and in the Patuxent Formation, where the Little and Big Patuxent Rivers meet in Maryland.

A fascinating ankylosaur discovery in 2016 in Montana’s Judith River Formation bore a striking (and spiky) resemblance to the mythical monster Zuul in the movie “Ghostbusters.” The paleontologists making the discovery were so struck by the similarity between the recovered skull and the movie monster that they named the specimen Zuul crurivastator, which means “destroyer of shins” in Latin, and refers to the Ankylosaurs long, club-like tail.

Last editorial update on Jul 13, 2020 02:30:28 pm.

Print |
Citation & Date |
Reprint

Advertisement

Advertisement

Advertisement

Advertisement

Get the best of HowStuffWorks by email!

Keep up to date on: Latest Buzz · Stuff Shows & Podcasts · Tours · Weird & Wacky

Copyright © 2020 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company

Privacy Choices

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

OK

Ankylosaurus: A Tank-like Herbivore With a Killer Club Tail

Research & References of Ankylosaurus: A Tank-like Herbivore With a Killer Club Tail|A&C Accounting And Tax Services
Source


10 Comments

Leave a comment